Tag Archives: google

The 6 Layers of Generative AI Technology Stack

3 Apr

Did you know that “T” in Chat-GPT stands for Transformer, which is Google’s revolutionary architecture that brings the concept of “self-attention” to AI? And that Google pioneered silicon for deep learning workloads with TPUs? After combing through dozens of technical papers and posts, I summarized my learnings in one visual below.

All the recent AI talk brought back the memory of the fall semester of 2003, when I signed up for a Neural Networks course 👩‍🎓. After several classes of advanced algebra and calculus, I was excited to see their practical applications in natural language processing and speech recognition use cases. Little did I know that in 2023, computers would not only be able to almost perfectly understand human speech, they would also gain a voice of their own thanks to decision making capability similar to humans.

I majored in Telecommunications Engineering and always found the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model, more commonly known as the OSI model, extremely useful in visually depicting all the key layers of the networking tech stack. So I thought to myself: what if I build a similar reference model for AI? At the end, at the core of AI lies a neural network. And I’ve successfully demystified a variety of tech stacks using the good ol’ OSI model before, from PaaS to SDN/NFV. Let me know what you think!

Thank you for inspiration to Philip Moyer and to Priyanka Vergadia and Neama Dadkhahnikoo for technical review.


And here’s an animated version of “The 6 Layers of Generative AI Technology Stack”. To me, it’s like watching a delicious multi-layer cake being assembled layer by layer, except instead of vanilla cake, lemon custard and cream-cheese frosting, our recipe calls for infrastructure, modeling and application layers as key ingredients. Who knew that a stack of AI layers could be so captivating?

Check out my LinkedIn post The 6 Layers of Generative AI Technology Stack


Easy Search… because tapping is superior to typing

5 Feb

Do you think that Google search engine has not really innovated since its launch in 1997? Would you agree that the user experience while searching Internet from a mobile device can be improved? Good news is, somebody already did it!

In my first Tech Surprise, “Digital Sandwich“, I asked a question: how long did it take to research all the lunch options and which device(s)/app(s) were used? The answer is below:

Device(s): ___________________ iPad
App(s): _____________________ EasySearch 4 iPad
Time used: ___________________ 30 seconds

25% of the American smartphone owners go online mostly from their mobile devices. Some of them want to quickly find information on a specific topic, others are just looking for inspiration on what to do when they have some time to kill, for example when exploring an unknown city.

iPhones and iPads are more versatile than the devices we used to play with in the past: laptops, music players or game consoles. They are light and equipped with large touchscreens. A third of smartphone owners prefer using them for Web browsing or e-mail even when they are near their computers. Over the past two years, iPhone users have spent 45 percent more time e-mailing on their smartphones and 15 percent less time e-mailing on their laptops.

The touchscreens of iPhones and iPads make tapping the more natural way of interacting with the Web then typing we were accustomed to in the era of PCs and laptops. There is enough content out there, so the challenge is more on the side of synthesizing it quickly then adding to it. That’s why tapping is superior to typing.

The recent financial results of Apple confirm that consumers expect to do “more” stuff with “less” of a device. Sales of “tapping” mobile devices soar (iPhones: 142 percent unit growth; iPads: 183 percent unit increase), while fewer people choose traditional “typing” and bulky gear (Macs: 14 percent unit increase).

Easy Search

With Easy Search you take advantage of the touch screen of your iPad or iPhone, you type once, search everywhere:
– Images – how does it look?
– Wikipedia – what is it?
– Maps – where is it?
– Facebook – are my friends using it?
– Twitter– are my friends using it NOW?

Doing more with less is a necessity in modern nomads’ lives. Constantly on the road, they rely on their mobile devices to quickly synthesize a lot of information and decide on where they are heading next. The nomadic lifestyle is powered by apps that help them navigate the digital and real worlds with more fun and less stress.